First Aid For Your Pet

American Animal Hospital Association

Tips and Treatments

When your pet has an emergency, being prepared is very important. Before you need it, be sure you know how your veterinarian handles emergencies or where you should go if you have one. For example, some veterinarians always have someone on call, while others use special emergency hospitals for things that arise after hours. AAHA-accredited hospitals are required to provide 24-hour-a-day emergency care in one way or another.

We cannot stress enough that you SHOULD NOT get on-line during a pet emergency or when your pet is seriously ill. In an emergency, first aid is not a substitute for veterinary treatment. However, before you are able to get your pet to a veterinarian, knowing some basic first aid can help. Always seek veterinary care following first-aid attempts.

Click on each item in the list below to read the first aid description and recommended  action.

Surgery Services

  • Surgical Sterilization
  • Surgical Declawing
  • Surgical Extraction
  • Spay and Neuter
  • Soft Tissue Surgery
  • Pathology
  • Microchip Services
  • Laser Surgical Services
  • General Surgery

After performing a complete examination and reviewing your pet's medical state, we will discuss treatment options that may include surgery and put together a plan that suits the needs of both you and your pet.

If surgery is recommended, you can feel comfortable knowing that our doctors will provide appropriate pain relief so that pain is identified and treated if present. Visual assessment and recording of vital signs is done by one of our trained veterinary surgical technicians. A technician is present during the entire surgery and recovery process to maintain the safety and comfort of your pet. We believe that keeping our patients safe and comfortable before, during and after surgery is of the greatest importance and an essential component of your pet's care.

Surgical Procedures Index:

Abscess Treatment

An abscess or localized area of infection that generally looks like a lump or bump and contains pus.
Treatment depends on the cause and location of the abscess, your individual pet, and your veterinarian. Treatment may include lancing and draining the abscess, antibiotics and cleaning the wound with disinfectant. Severe abscesses are often left open to heal.

Abdominal Hernia Repair

A hernia or rent in the abdominal wall should be repaired at the time of diagnosis. This repair can be performed at the time of the spay or neuter surgery since the pet will be already anesthetized. The surgery consists of manually reducing the contents of the hernia into the abdomen followed by the surgeon removing or closing the hernial sac. Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to close the deeper tissue layers, and the outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples that need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Abdominocentesis

Removing fluid from the abdomen to help diagnose a medical condition or to relive respiratory distress in some emergency cases. In order to perform an abdominocentesis, your veterinarian will likely shave a small area of hair from the abdomen. The skin is disinfected and a needle or cannula is carefully inserted into the abdominal cavity. Fluid is collected with special tubing, a syringe or allowed to drip from the needle into a sterile tube. After the fluid is collected, analysis is needed to help determine the potential underlying cause of the fluid accumulation. Analysis of the fluid may be done by your veterinarian or submitted to an outside laboratory. Test results may not be available for up to 3 to 5 days but sometimes, results may be available within a couple of hours. The length of time will depend on which tests are necessary. This may need to be repeated depending on the condition.

ACL Tightrope Repair

Repair of Ruptured Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) by TightRope Ligament Replacement
Just as in the human knee, the most critical stabilizing structure in the canine knee is the anterior or cranial cruciate ligament (ACL). The primary function of the ACL is to prevent forward thrusting motion and inward rotation of the tibia during weight bearing and to prevent hyper-extension of the knee.

When the ACL is ruptured or partially torn, the abnormal, forward thrusting motion and inward rotation of the tibia during weight bearing results in an unstable, painful knee and ultimately, in debilitating, degenerative arthritic changes in the knee joint.

The newest procedure for repairing a ruptured ACL by ligament replacement is the TightRope Ligament technique. This procedure has been proven in over 200 knees and has been shown to be highly effective.

The TightRope ACL technique is minimally invasive, and more cost effective in comparison to the TPLO or TTA 

WHAT DO  THESE  INITIALS STAND FOR??
The data suggest that TightRope can be successfully performed in medium, large and giant breed dogs resulting in outcomes which are comparable or better than TPLO or TTA. A MiniTightRope is also available for toy and small breeds.
The TightRope CCL counteracts the forward thrust of the shin bone and inward rotation resulting from ACL damage, while providing optimal joint range of motion.
This procedure mimics the natural cruciate ligament functions, perhaps better than any other procedure developed to date.
The TightRope Ligament is produced by Arthrex Vet Systems. It is an ultra-high strength, flat, smooth, braided, ribbon-like ligament composed of a multi-stranded long chain ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) core with a braided jacket of polyester giving it unsurpassed strength, virtually eliminating ligament breakage. The ligament provides an ultimate load of 225 lbs, approximately three times the strength of 80# nylon ligaments currently in use for ACL replacement.
This procedure provides our clients another option when a less invasive, less radical and somewhat more cost effective procedure that does not cut bone is desired by the pet owner.
A tunnel is drilled in the femur beginning at a very precise anatomical point on the inside of the bone, at an upward angle, exiting on the inside surface of the shaft of the femur.

A second tunnel is drilled in the tibia (shin bone) beginning at a very precise anatomical point on the inside of the tibial crest in a downward direction, exiting on the inside surface of the shaft of the tibia.
The TightRope Ligament is passed from inside to outside through the femoral tunnel, then from outside to inside through the tibial tunnel. The stainless steel tibial toggle button is then turned 90 degrees to the ligament, placed against the surface of the tibia, and the TightRope Ligament is pulled taut through the tibial tunnel. The TightRope Ligament is then pulled taut through the femoral tunnel eliminating all “slack” in the ligament. The stainless steel femoral button is then slid down the ligament until it is snug against the surface of the femur, the ligament pulled tight and anchored in this position by tying it down against the femoral button. The ligament is now in place, very secure and mimics very closely the function of the natural anterior cruciate ligament. The TightRope Ligament now in place. Note that the TightRope Ligament is placed under the long digital extensor tendon, allowing it to function normally and to prevent any damage to the tendon.

Following release from our hospital, your pet must be strictly confined to leash activity only for a period of twelve weeks and the use of stairs must be eliminated. If entry to the home involves several steps, it is advisable to construct a temporary ramp for your pet to use. Jumping up on and down from furniture must also be eliminated. Until your suture removal visit, strict exercise restriction is required and your pet should be taken outdoors on a leash only as necessary for eliminations. When not directly with your pet it is advisable to separate your pet from other pets in the household and confine him or her to a small room or crate.

It is advisable to keep an Elizabethan collar in place to prevent chewing of the incision until sutures are removed.

After sutures are removed, we will be meeting at specified intervals throughout the twelve week convalescent period to monitor your dog’s progress and advise activities that are appropriate for your pet’s recovery. Leash walking will be gradually reintroduced, swimming may be implemented and range of motion exercises may be reviewed. Laser therapy is also available and highly recommended to relieve the pain and inflammation and accelerate healing.

Adenoma Removal

Surgical removal of a skin adenoma. Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, The hair is clipped over the area of issue and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel or laser is used to incise the skin full thickness. The adenoma’s margins are identified and the vessels supplying blood flow are ligated, or tied off. The adenoma is then removed. The deep tissue is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures, surgical adhesive or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Amputation

Surgical removal of a limb. Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, with the leg in question exposed. The hair is clipped around the shoulder or hip area, depending on the leg to be removed. The skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area and a sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel is used to incise the skin around the area of the shoulder or hip. In the foreleg removal, the leg can be removed at the level of the shoulder or the leg and shoulder blade can be removed. This will vary depending on the reason for leg removal and cosmetics. For the rear leg, removal is commonly done at the upper 2/3 of the femur, leaving a stump of the leg. In some situations, the leg is removed at the hip joint.  Leaving a partial limb, especially in the front interferes with the animals balance.

After determining the site of leg removal, the skin is incised. The muscles, nerves and blood vessels are also incised, after being ligated (tied off) if necessary. In the case of the foreleg, the leg is either removed at the shoulder joint or the leg and shoulder blade are removed together. In the case of the rear leg, the humerus  (thigh bone) is cut with bone wire or a bone saw. Muscle is used to fold over the rough edge of the bone.  Occasionally a drain will be placed under the skin and will be removed in approximately 3-5 days.

Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to close the muscles and deeper tissue layers. The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Anal Sacculectomy (Anal Sac Removal)

Surgical removal of one or both anal sacs . Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on his stomach or side.  Both anal sacs are fully expressed.  The hair is clipped around the anal area, the rectum is packed to prevent contamination. A liquid compound that hardens into the consistency of rubber is injected into the sacs to distend the sacs.  The skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area and a sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. Your veterinarian uses a laser to incise the skin over the anal sac. The gland is gradually dissected free of associated tissues, and blood vessels supplying the gland, as well as the ducts. All are ligated (tied off). The sac is then removed.   Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to close the deeper tissue layers, and the outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples that need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days. This procedure is repeated on the other gland.

Anastomisis

Surgical correction or removal and resectioning of damaged/diseased intestines. Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on his back. The hair is clipped over the middle of the abdomen and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel/laser is used to incise the skin at the middle of the abdomen, and then the abdominal cavity is opened. The intestines are isolated and evaluated. The section of diseased or damaged intestine is detected. On either side of the damaged intestine, large specialized clamps are used to close off the healthy parts of the intestine to prevent leakage of intestinal contents into the abdomen without damaging tissue. The damaged section of intestine is clamped and then removed with a scalpel or surgical scissors.

At this point, there is a section of intestine missing and the healthy edges need to be sutured together. Using absorbable suture, the healthy sections of intestines are sutured together and the area is tested to make sure there are no leaks. A section of omentum (the lacy membrane that cover the intestines) is wrapped around the incision site to help protect against leaks. The abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches) after a thourough flush of the abdomen to remove any contamination. The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Aural (Ear) Hematoma Repair

Surgical repair of an ear hematoma. Treatments for hematomas involve a minor surgical procedure.  After sedation and surgical prep, the offending fluid is aspirated from the ear flap.  An incision is made on the inside of the ear flap allowing the remaining blood to drain and prevent refilling, then your veterinarian will suture the skin together in a fashion that will help prevent the area from filling up with blood again.  The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures and a screened mesh or surgical rivets and mesh.  A pressure bandage is placed for 2-3 days.  Suture removal is in 10 days.

Auriflush Ear Flush (Ear-A-Gator)

A video otoscope gives our veterinarians a detailed view of the inside of your pet's ears. We use the Med RX Video Otoscope and Irrigation System, the latest in video otoscope technology, to examine and treat your pet. We evaluate ears for several problems, including:

  • Inflammatory polyps
  • Laser ablation guided by the video otoscope for cerumen gland adenomas
  • Evaluation of the tympanic membrane (ear drum); rupture, tear, bulging (myringotomy to relieve pressure and irrigate the middle ear and infuse antibiotics)
  • Follow-up evaluation and medical progress of the tympanic membrane and middle ear
Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, placed on advanced monitoring systems, and the video otoscope is installed into the effected ear or ears to identify the problem area(s). Once identified, using the scope your veterinarians can completely flush the ear canal, clear obstructions, masses, polyps, etc. using the scopes instrument channel. We can even manually retrieve wax blockages and obtain tissue samples for testing. High resolution images can be taken for you to see the issues with your own eyes.

Barium Contrast Study

Abdominal radiograph series with the addition of a x-ray blocking fluid (positive contrast) to highlight problem areas or foreign objects in the body. Abdominal X-rays provide an image of the bones and the outlines of a number of internal organs including the liver, stomach, intestines, kidneys, bladder, uterus and prostate gland. This test can be extremely useful for detecting changes in the shape, size or position of organs or blockage to the passage of the barium.  Unfortunately, important structures can sometimes blend together on X-rays, so this test does have limitations. For example, a tumor may blend into the background of normal organs because they have the same "opacity," or shade of gray as the normal tissues. Some foreign objects (such as some plastics) can be invisible on the X-ray. Thus, abdominal X-rays are an excellent "screening test," but they do not detect all internal problems. In some cases, additional procedures such as ultrasound imaging, endoscopy (scoping), contrast (air for negative contrast). This procedure takes 3 to 4 hours to perform and then further time to review so plan on your pet being with us for the day.  Sometimes as many as  8 radiographs may be necessary to taken to track the bariums flow over the day.

Cesarean Section (C-Section)

Surgical removal of all fetuses in the uterus. Following a very short acting anesthesia and a local nerve block, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on her back. The hair is clipped over the lower abdomen, the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area and a sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. The veterinarian then performs a midline incision similar to that used to spay a female; however, the incision line will be relatively longer. A scalpel is used to incise the skin of the lower abdomen and then open the abdominal cavity. The uterus will be exposed and then incised to remove the fetus. The pup(s) is (are) handed to an assistant who clears the airway, stimulates breathing, and gives medications if necessary. Oxytocin is given to help shrink the uterus and control bleeding. The uterine horns are closed with sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time. Alternatively, the female may be spayed (this procedure is explained elsewhere on this site).  The abdomen is flushed and the abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples that must be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Chemical Ablation of the Eye

A salvage procedure for chronic conditions that have caused blindness rather than removing the eye.   Glaucoma, cataract, lens luxation and chronic uveitis can cause blindness in your pet.  The animal is sedated and a topical anesthesia is placed into the eye.  A needle is passed into the posterior chamber and ocular fluid is removed.  A solution is instilled into the eye that destroys the nerve and cells that produce fluid for the eye.  Over time the eye begins to shrink and the pain associated with the eye disease is relieved.  This procedure is must less extensive than the surgical removal of the eye.

Cherry Eye Repair

Treatment involves surgical replacement of the herniated Nictatan's gland of the third eyelid back into its correct position at the base of the third eyelid.  The laser is used to create a pocket behind the third eyelid and the sergeon uses a very fine absorbable suture material to anchor it in place and close the pocket.  It is important to have the surgical correction done as quickly as possible to minimize any further damage to your pet’s eye or loss of tear production.  If treatment is neglected or prolonged, the risk causing further damage is high.  Remember, that the third eyelid is responsible for at least fifty percent of the tear production, so if neglected your pet may develop dry eye which can lead to vision loss.

Cholesectomy

Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a storage reservoir for bile, which is formed by the liver and helps digest fats in your pet's diet. This procedure is usually performed when the gallbladder is inflamed or infected, when gall stones form, when cancer of the gallbladder is present or in cases where trauma has ruptured it.

Recovery times and prognoses depend on the reason for the surgery. In the case of infections without rupture, animals may be hospitalized for only a few days, and their activity level restricted until suture removal (in 10 to 14 days). In the case of rupture, which results in peritonitis (inflammation or infection of the abdominal wall lining), hospitalization may be several days to a week or more. As a result of the peritonitis, dog patients usually will be in very critical condition when leaving surgery with guarded prognosis.  In the case of cancer, prognosis depends on the type of tumor, whether or not the gallbladder had ruptured, and how completely the tumor was removed. Some tumors invade surrounding vital tissues, which may make complete excision impossible.

Corkscrew Suture Anchor

The Arthrex 5 mm Bio-Corkscrews are threaded bioabsorbable suture anchors featuring a braided suture eyelet molded into the implant. This is a patented design that eliminates eyelet degradation concerns and loss of fixation strength during the critical tissue healing period. The low coefficient of drag between the suture eyelet and the attached suture improves the performance of sliding knots and eliminates abrasion to the attached suture. The Bio-Corkscrew is ideal for open or arthroscopic soft tissue to bone repairs and comes preloaded with two #2 nonabsorbable sutures.

Surgical Technique
The Bio-Corkscrew is inserted into bone following pilot hole preparation. A Bio-Corkscrew Punch is initially malleted at a 45 ̊ “Deadman’s” angle and advanced until the laser line is below the bone surface.

In situations when dense cortico-cancellous bone is encountered, the pilot hole is further prepared by hand with the Bio-Corkscrew Punch/Tap until the laser line of the Punch/Tap is threaded below the bone surface.

The Bio-Corkscrew is then inserted into the pilot hole until the laser line on the driver shaft is below the bone surface.

Cryptorchid (unilateral & bilateral)

Surgical intervention and neutering of a non-descended testicle. Castration is the recommended treatment of choice for pets with cryptorchidism due to the danger of developing testicular tumors . The non-descended testicles may be in the abdomen, just outside the inguinal ring or stuck inside the ring. Depending on where the non-descended testicle is located, the incision may be in the inguinal skin or into the abdomen where the abnormal testicle must be found, identified and removed. The normal (descended) testicle is removed in the regular manner. Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to close the deeper tissue layers, and the outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples that need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Cystotomy

The surgical entering of the urinary bladder often for removal of urinary stones from the bladder or to examine the health of the bladder wall. Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on its back lying on the surgical table. The hair is clipped over the lower abdomen, the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area and a sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. The incision is similar to a spay incision (midline) but more toward the rear of the animal's abdomen. Your veterinarian uses a laser or scalpel to incise the skin of the lower abdomen and to open the abdominal cavity. The urinary bladder is isolated with sterile sponges, the bladder is emptied through aspiration and an incision is made through the bladder wall. Any remaining urine is removed from the bladder to prevent abdominal contamination. The operation then continues; for example, the surgeon may remove bladder stones, a tumor, or extensive blood clots. The urethra is flushed to make sure it is not obstructed.  Often a urinary catheter is placed at the conclusion of surgery, to allow urine to drain more easily from the bladder and prevent it from distending until some healing can occur.  At the conclusion of the procedure, sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are placed to close the incision in the urinary bladder. The abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The abdomen is flushed and the outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Dewclaw Removal

Surgical removal of one or multiple dew claws. The hair is clipped and skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. The dewclaw is often loosely connected to the paw, unlike other toes. This makes removal relatively simple. A local nerve block is placed.  If no bone is attached, surgical scissors, a scalpel or surgical laser  are used to remove the skin, bone remnant and nail of the digit. The skin is then sutured with absorbable or non-absorbable sutures. Some veterinarians use surgical adhesive. If non-absorbable suture is used, it will need to be removed in 7-9 days. In older pets, a bandage is placed over the incision site for 2 to 3 days.  In more firmly attached dewclaws the surgical laser provides superior removal with less post surgical pain and complications.  It is important to keep the pet from chewing at the area.

Diagnostic Ultrasound

Ultrasound is perhaps most familiar in human medicine in studying fetal development in pregnant women. It works by sending sound waves, beyond the range of human hearing, through tissue and recording the waves as they are reflected back. Those reflections are then transformed into images of organs and other body systems for veterinarians to study.
In simplest terms, ultrasound produces two-dimensional pictures of, say, the heart, kidney, tendons, liver or spleen as they are actually functioning. The pictures enable veterinarians to see even the pulsing of blood vessels. It is not used very often however, for diseases of the bone.

"If you take an X-ray of the heart, all you see is the shape and size of the heart. Is it small, normal or large?, Or is it enlarged at a certain spot?" explained Rappaport. "With ultrasound you can see inside the heart, see the valves and measure the thickness of the walls of the heart. It is the same with the kidney. With an X-ray you will see a bean-shaped kidney. With ultrasound, you can see the structure of the organ."

Diaphragmatic Hernia Repair

A diaphragmatic hernia is a tear or rupture in the sheet of muscle called the diaphragm. The diaphragm separates the abdomen from the lungs and chest cavity, and once ruptured, allows abdominal organs to pass through to the chest cavity. These intruding organs can push against the lungs making it difficult for your pet to breath or against the heart causing heart issues as well. Fluid from the abdomen may also flow through the tear into the chest, further crowding the cavity.  These organs can also become entrapped and strangulate and die.  Diaphragmatic surgery is very delicate and usually requires two surgeons or a well trained surgical nurse with a doctor.  Removing the herniated organs from the chest without damage, finding strong viable muscle to close the rent, closing the tear and removing all of the air out of the chest around the lungs to permit them to expand properly once again are all essential parts of this difficult surgery. Approaches can be from the abdomen or chest wall depending on the particular case.

Distichiasis

Removal of eye lashes (or distichia) that grow abnormally along the edge of the eyelids.  Some dogs with  fine distichia may show no symptoms and require no treatment at all, and some may be managed conservatively, especially those with mild clinical signs.

Ophthalmic lubricant ointments may be used to protect the cornea from chronic irritation and to coat the lashes in an oily film. Lubricants are most often chosen when mild tearing is the only clinical sign exhibited by the dog, if the lashes are few in number and fine in texture, or if the animal is not a good candidate for general anesthesia and surgery.

Short, stubby  or "whisker like" lashes require surgical correction as they abrade the cornea.   It is very important to remove the lashes and kill the hair follicles if the dog is obviously bothered by the lashes, or if they are causing corneal changes.  Corneal ulcers ultimately result.

There is no single ideal surgical procedure available, as the hair follicles can be very difficult to kill. If only one or two lashes are present, then that portion of the eyelid may be surgically removed. If multiple eyelashes are present, then laser cautery or vaporization of the base of the hair follicles  or freezing of the glands/follicles with cryotherapy may be chosen. Care must be taken with both procedures so that excessive scarring of the eyelids does not occur. Regrowth of hairs is a common problem and may necessitate repeated surgeries. Eruption of new hairs at new locations often occur.

Ectopic Cilia Removal

A hair that erupts and grows from under the eyelid is an ectopic cilia.  These small hairs constantly irritate the cornea and often cause chronic, recurrent corneal ulcers.  They can be very difficult to diagnose.  After sedation or anesthesia numbing drops are placed in the eye.  The eyelid is everted exposing the ectopic hair and a surgical laser is used to vaporize the hair and its follicle.  Post surgical ointment in used to protect the eye for approximately 1 week.

Ectropian Repair

Ectropion is the rolling out or sagging of one or both eyelids.  This is considered "plastic" surgery and a laser is used to reconstruct the eyelid to help it regain its normal appearance and function.  Surgery can be very intricate and involves using extremely fine suture material.  Several different procedures may be utilized, depending upon how severe the ectropion is, what area of the lid is affected, and whether there are other defects that must be corrected at the same time. The goal of surgery is to return the lid to a more normal position and to keep the hairs of the eyelid from rubbing on the cornea. Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to close the deeper tissue layers if necessary and the outer layer of skin is closed with sutures that need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Enterotomy

The opening of the intestines surgical is called an enterotomy.  This surgery is used to remove a foreign bodies, tumors or obtain samples for biopsy. Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on his back. The hair is clipped over the middle of the abdomen, the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area, and a sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. Your veterinarian uses a scalpel or laser to incise the skin at the center of the abdomen to open the abdominal cavity. The abdominal organs are examined and evaluated. If deemed necessary, other surgical procedures such as splenectomy, biopsy, cystotomy,  ovariohysterectomy may be performed. These procedures are explained elsewhere on this site. The intestinal area to be opoened is securely packed off and isolated from the other areas to prevent contamination.  An intestinal incision may be linear (along the length of the intestines) or transverse (across the intestine) depending on why the procedure is being done.  It is important to fully close the intestinal wall and thoroughly flush the site and the abdominal cavity to prevent any contamination from the intestine. The abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 9-10.

Entropian Repair

Entropion is an inversion of the eyelid (ie, inward turning of the eyelid margin) toward the globe. This is considered plastic surgery and is very intricate.  This correction is important so that permanent damage is not done to the eye from chronic irritation of the hair on the eyelids.  Its goal, using a surgical laser, is to correct the structure of the eyelid to help it regain its normal appearance and function. Surgical option involves removal of skin from the eyelid, near the eyelid margin and resuturing the edges causing the lids to roll back into normal position.  The surgical laser can also "contract' the eyelid tissue correcting the problem without an incision in mild cases. The goal of surgery is to return the lid to a more normal position and to keep the hairs of the eyelid from rubbing on the cornea.

Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on his belly. The hair is clipped over the eyelids, the eyes are flushed and lubricated, the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area, and a sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. Your veterinarian uses a laser to incise the skin at the eyelid. Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to close the deeper tissue layers, and the outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical that need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Esophageal Feeding Tube Placement

Feeding Tube Placement is the placement of a temporary or permanent tube for a patient who can not or will not eat. We may choose to place any of the following types of tubes:

  • Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube
  • Gastric feeding tube (non-endoscopic placement)
  • Esophageal feeding tube
  • Nasal or Naso-esophageal / naso-gastric feeding tube
Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on his side. The hair is clipped over the throat, the eyes are lubricated, the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area, and a sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. Your veterinarian uses a scalpel or laser to incise the skin at the side of the neck at the back of the throat, and place the Esophagostomy feeding tube through the incision.  The tube is then passed  down the esophagus to the stomach and is sutured to the skin of the neck to anchor it. Patients will have a wrap placed around their neck where the tube is inserted and the tube is capped when not in use. Esophagostomy feeding tubes can generally be kept in place for up to two weeks.

Exotic Animal Services

Camboro veterinary hospital is pleased to offer full veterinary service to the following companion animals: Birds, Guinea pigs, Rabbits, Chinchillas, Hamsters, Sugar Gliders, Pot-bellied pigs, Goats, Tamarins, Non-venomous Snakes, Iguanas, Geckos, Turtles, and more! Please call us if you have questions regarding services or species not listed on this page at 1-814-734-1628.

Extra Capsular Monofilament Stabilization

Surgical correction of a torn or ruptured ACL. There are many technical variations of the Extracapsular Stabilization, but all are the same in that the stifle joint is stabilized with placement of a non-absorbable suture material, typically a monofilament nylon such as fishing leader line, around the lateral fabella and through a hole in the tibial crest mimicking the pattern of the CCL.  Although often referred to as an “artificial ligament”, the suture provides only temporary stabilization and will loosen over time.  This technique relies on scar tissue to ultimately stabilize the joint. Recovery time following the Extracapsular Stabilization is approximately 3 to 5 months.  While this technique can be successful, it is more likely to fail in large breed dogs as the prosthetic ligament can stretch or rupture.

Also see the ACL Tightrope.

Eyelid Tumor Removal

Treatments for eyelid tumors may include one or more of the following depending on the type and severity of the eyelid mass:

The recommended treatment for most canine eyelid tumors is surgical removal, using a surgical laser. Complete excision is usually curative for the benign eyelid tumors.

Large eyelid tumors may require surgical reconstructive techniques of the skin and tissues around the eyelid to preserve adequate protection of the eye after tumor removal.

Certain types of eyelid tumors may respond to medical therapy if they are small and do not invade nearby tissues extensively. Small mast cell tumors (mastocytomas) may respond to systemic corticosteroids or locally injected corticosteroids. Lymphosarcoma of the eyelid may respond to chemotherapy, as this location of the tumor usually represents metastasis (spread) of systemic cancer from somewhere else in the body.

Certain types of tumors may respond to cryotherapy, which is freezing of the tumor.

If the tumor is large and invades the surrounding tissues, then surgical removal may also involve removal of the eye and permanent closure of the skin of the face and forehead.

Femoral Head Ostectomy (F.H.O.)

Surgical removal of the head (ball joint) of one or both hips. This surgery is also called femoral head arthroplasty, ostectomy or femoral head excision. The most common reason it is performed is when the head and neck of the femur have been broken off from the shaft due to an automobile accident. A second common cause is the eventual arthritis that occurs in the hip joint due to a prior accidental hip dislocation
( luxation ).     

An incision is made over the hip and the tissues are carefully parted to expose the head (ball) of the femur. This portion of the leg bone is removed and the remaining shaft is smoothed. Then tissue that surrounded the joint is positioned so that a strong band of connective tissue forms to attach the leg bone (femur) to the pelvis. As this consolidates with additional new scar and cartilaginous tissue, a pseudo-joint forms that is pain free and allows almost natural motion.

Joint pain, due to the grinding together of the bones of the hip is completely eliminated. After surgery, the animal maintains its knee a bit straighter to compensate for the slight shortening of the femur.
For the first few weeks after surgery, our veterinarians suggest that the pet be confine to a small cage and have the owner frequently massage the muscles of the leg. By the 4th to 6th week after surgery, they may encourage as much light activity as possible to prevent atrophy (withering) of the muscles of the leg.

Foreign Body Removal

Surgical removal of a foreign object from the body. Most dogs with a gastric foreign body obstruction have been vomiting or not eating for a period of time. This leads to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Your veterinarian will recommend hospitalization with intravenous fluids prior to anesthesia.

Once your dog is more stable, he will be anesthetized and the foreign object will be removed by one of two primary methods: endoscopy or surgery.
Endoscopy. This method can remove foreign objects within the stomach. If a significant amount of the foreign material is located within the intestines, endoscopy may not be the appropriate choice.

An endoscope is a flexible tube with a camera attachment. The tube is placed through the mouth into the stomach. After the foreign body is located, a grabbing instrument is inserted through the endoscope. By guiding the tip of the endoscope, the foreign object can be identified, grasped and slowly pulled up through the esophagus and out the mouth.

The decrease in the stress on your pet is significant and the absence of an incision makes the recovery time quicker.  Not all foreign material can be grasped however by the small endoscopic grabbers asometimes an exploratory surgery must still be performed.
 
Surgery    

After gas anesthesia is induced, your dog will have their mid abdomen shaved. An incision is made along the midline of the abdomen. The stomach and intestines are examined for foreign material or obstructions. After localizing the foreign material, the area is packed off from the rest of the bowel and a small incision is made into the stomach or intestine.  The foreign material is then removed. The incision in the stomach or intestine is sutured, the area rinsed well and the abdomen flushed. The body wall and skin are then sutured closed.

Advantages of surgical removal of foreign material is the ability to examine the entire intestinal tract for other obstructions or damage. Disadvantages include post-operative pain, prolonged hospital stay and potential for infection or adhesion of the stomach or intestinal incision.

After removal of the foreign material, the dog is maintained on intravenous fluids until their hydration is adequate and he is able to eat and drink without vomiting. Post-operative pain medication as well as antibiotics may be given.

Based on the severity of intestinal damage, your dog may require 2-5 days of hospitalization.

Fracture Repair

Surgical repair of a broken bone. The type of fracture, its location, the age of the animal, the presence of other injuries or fractures and the financial means of the owner, are all major considerations in the choice of fracture repair undertaken. For any given fracture there are often many different treatment options. Some types of repair may require special equipment and experience necessitating referral to a board certified surgeon.

For surgical repair of fractures, the animal is anesthetized and placed on a surgical table with the fractured area exposed. The hair is clipped over the surgery site and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site and all surrounding areas are wrapped or covered in sterile drapes.

Fractures are repaired externally or internally. External repairs involve the placement of pins through the skin and bone that protrude on both sides of the leg. These pins are then connected with rods. Internal repair can involve the placement of a metal rod through the center of the bone fragments and wires to stabilize the bone. Metal bone screws or plates can also be used to bring the fracture edges together to help immobilize and repair the fracture. These are compression plates. The type of fixation used is based on the type and severity of the fracture, location of the fracture and financial concerns.

Gastric Dilatation (Volvulus) and Torsion (Bloat)

Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus (GDV), often referred to as "bloat" or gastric torsion," is a serious condition caused by abnormal dilatation and twisting of the stomach. The condition is initiated by abnormal accumulation of air, fluid or foam in the stomach (gastric dilatation). Bloating of the stomach is often related to swallowed air, although food and fluid also can be present. Bloat can occur with or without torsion, or twisting. As the stomach enlarges, it may rotate 90 degrees to 360 degrees, twisting between its fixed attachments at the esophagus (food tube) and at the duodenum in the upper intestine.  A torsion can completely obstruct emptying of the stomach. The twist also prevents burping, so the dog cannot obtain relief of air or stomach contents by belching or vomiting. In fact, a hallmark symptom of torsion is nonproductive attempts at vomiting. The bloated stomach obstructs the return of blood from the veins in the abdomen leading to low blood pressure, obstructive shock and associated complications. The dog also may seem short of breath due to pain and the physical compression of the chest and diaphragm caused by the expanding stomach.

The combination of bloating and torsion seriously reduces the blood supply to the stomach (gastric ischemia) and this can lead to necrosis (death) of the stomach wall. Shock and lack of blood supply to abdominal organs break down the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract lining and permit toxins and bacteria to enter the blood stream. Abnormal blood clotting – disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) – may develop. The spleen can be damaged or begin to bleed because it is attached to the stomach by a membrane, and it becomes twisted and rotated abnormally as the stomach turns. Heart function is compromised due to lack of venous blood return. Irregular heart rhythms often develop such as ventricular tachycardia. Shock and death follow if the condition is left untreated or if treatment is initiated too late in this devastating sequence.

GDV is most common in deep-chested or large to giant breed dogs between two and ten years of age. GDV can also occur in other breeds, but this is comparably rare. Pure breed dogs are at higher risk for bloat. The breeds most commonly affected include the Great Dane, Standard Poodle, Saint Bernard, Gordon Setter, Irish Setter, Doberman Pinscher, Old English Sheepdog, Weimaraner, and the Basset hound.

GDV can sometimes be associated with eating or drinking before or after exercise. Risk factors may include once daily feeding and consumption of large amounts of food or water.

Hip Toggling

Done to repair dislocated hips that can not be reduced or will not stay in place.

Treatment of dislocated hip may consist of one or more of the following:.

Closed reduction. This is the replacement of the head of the femur into the socket without surgery.

Open reduction. This is the surgical replacement and stabilization of the head of the femur into the socket.

Open reduction requires that a surgical approach to the hip joint is made to allow direct visualization of the bones and joint capsule. The torn round ligament of the femoral head (which usually anchors the hip) is removed and the head of the femur is replaced into the acetabulum (socket).

The surgeon may use one of the following methods for maintaining the position and preventing reluxation:

Joint capsule reconstruction, which is repair of the torn joint capsule

Prosthetic joint capsule, which is the use of suture material between acetabular rim and femur to prevent the femoral head from moving out of joint

Toggle pin, which is the placement of a piece of large suture material within the joint to mimic the function of the damaged round ligament

Greater trochanter translocation, which consists of redirecting the pull of the large hip muscles to force the head of the femur (ball) into the acetabulum (socket).

De Vita pin, which is the placement of a metal bar across the rim of the acetabulum to prevent the femoral head from moving out. The pin needs to be removed in several weeks through a small incision behind the animal's thigh. This technique may also be employed in a "closed" fashion, without the need for an incision.

After surgery, the limb may be placed in a special sling to permit healing and contraction of the muscles around the hip.

Intessuception

An intussusception is the telescoping of one part of the intestinal tract into an adjoining segment of intestinal tract. It commonly involves the small intestines. Intussusception can cause narrowing or obstruction of the lumen (inside diameter) of the intestines, resulting in an acute emergency. Intussusception can also cause waxing and waning symptoms of abdominal distress if the intussusception is periodically relieved by the affected segment of intestine moving back and forth from a telescoped position into a normal position.  The portion of the bowel that is telescoped often dies and surgery is done to remove the dead section and reconnect the healthy ends of the bowel.

Keratectomy

A Keratectomy is the surgical removal of a layer of corneal tissue. a superficial keratectomy only removal the first layer or two.  This technique is the most invasive of the surgical procedures for treating indolent (chronic) ulcers, although it is the most successful. To perform a superficial keratectomy, the patient must be anesthetized.  Microsurgical instruments and magnification must be used. First, the cornea is debrided or cleaned of old unhealthy tissue. Thereafter, an incision is made into the superficial tissue around the debrided area. The top layers of corneal thickness is removed from this area. Never more than a third of the depth of the cornea.   A third eyelid flap can be used to protect the cornea after surgery (although not for the purpose of healing).

Debridement and keratotomy
In most patients, the mechanical debridement of the loose redundant epithelium can be performed with a dry, sterile, cotton-tipped applicator, after application of topical anesthesia.  This may be all that is necessary.

Grid Keratotomy
A linear or grid keratotomy is then performed with a 25gauge needle. It is recommended that this procedure be performed with good magnification. Small parallel linear incisions are made in a grid- like fashion through the epithelium to expose the underlying corneal stroma. The needle only penetrates 0.2-0.3 mm deep and linear incisions are placed 1-2 mm apart and extend about 3mm into the normal epithelium surrounding the ulcer. Parallel lines are made in a horizontal plane and then perpendicular to this in a vertical plane like a miniature tic-tac-toe game. Epithelial cell migration will occur in these lines and will enhance adherence to the corneal stroma.

Laceration Repair

Initially, the hair surrounding the laceration is clipped. The area is scrubbed with surgical soap and disinfectants to remove any debris. Dead or severely damaged skin is trimmed off or debrided. Depending on the depth of the laceration, multiple layers of sutures (stitches) may be needed to close the laceration after flushing with a tissue safe disinfectant. Absorbable sutures are used to bring the edges of the underlying tissues together. The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days

Lacrimal Duct Flushing

Surgical flushing of blocked tear ducts. Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on his belly. The eyes lubricated, the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area, and a sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. Your veterinarian will identify the four different tear or lacrimal ducts. A special lacrimal needle will be passed into the duct. A saline solution containing an anti-inflamatory medication is gently flushed through the tear drainage system to check how it's draining, or use a slender instrument (probe) inserted through the tiny drainage holes at the corner of the eye (puncta) to check for blockages. During this probing, the puncta or opening for the tear duct is usually dilated and if the problem is simply a blocked or narrowed puncta, this procedure may resolve the problem.

Laperotomy

Exploratory laparotomy is a surgical entry into the abdomen and is used as a method of abdominal exploration, a diagnostic tool that allows physicians to examine the abdominal organs. The procedure may be recommended for a patient who has abdominal pain of unknown origin or who has sustained an injury to the abdomen. Injuries may occur as a result of blunt trauma (e.g., road traffic accident), penetrating trauma (e.g., stab or gunshot wound) or foreign body. Because of the nature of the abdominal organs, there is a high risk of infection if organs rupture or are perforated. In addition, bleeding into the abdominal cavity is considered a medical emergency. Exploratory laparotomy is used to determine the source of pain or the extent of injury and perform repairs if possible.

The surgeon may then explore the abdominal cavity for disease or trauma. The abdominal organs in question will be examined for evidence of infection, inflammation, perforation, abnormal growths, or other conditions. Any fluid surrounding the abdominal organs will be inspected; the presence of blood, bile, or other fluids may indicate specific diseases or injuries. In some cases, an abnormal smell encountered upon entering the abdominal cavity may be evidence of infection or a perforated gastrointestinal organ.

If an abnormality is found, the surgeon has the option of treating the patient before closing the wound or initiating treatment after exploratory surgery. Alternatively, samples of various tissues and/or fluids may be removed for further analysis. For example, if cancer is suspected, biopsies may be obtained so that the tissues can be examined microscopically for evidence of abnormal cells. If no abnormality is found, or if immediate treatment is not needed, the incision may be closed without performing any further surgical procedures.

Liver Lobectomy

Liver lobectomy (surgical extirpation of a lobe of the liver) is the surgical treatment recommended for dogs with hepatocellular carcinoma or benign masses of the liver. After sedation, your dog will have his mid abdomen shaved. An incision is made along the midline of the abdomen. The liver is examined. After localizing the problem area it is packed off from the abdomen and removed.  Various methods are used in liver lobectomy including finger-fracture, mass ligation, mattress sutures and surgical stapling. Mass ligation is not meant for large tumors with wide base. In smaller lesions, veterinarians usually opt for blunt dissection (surgical separation of tissue layers by means of an instrument) of the hepatic parenchyma (hepatocytes, a kind of cell present in the liver that secrete bile) and individual ligation (surgical process of tying up an anatomical channel) of bile ducts and vessels. In some cases a doctor can save time and use surgical staplers. It is important to assess the relationship of right-sided and central liver tumors with caudal vena cava (the main vessel returning blood from the rear of the body) before the surgery. So, doctors generally opt for advanced imaging.

The surgeon may then explore the remainder of the abdominal cavity for further disease or trauma. The abdominal organs in question will be examined for evidence of infection, inflammation, perforation, abnormal growths, or other conditions. Any fluid surrounding the abdominal organs will be inspected; the presence of blood, bile, or other fluids may indicate specific diseases or injuries. In some cases, an abnormal smell encountered upon entering the abdominal cavity may be evidence of infection or a perforated gastrointestinal organ. If an abnormality is found, the surgeon has the option of treating the patient before closing the wound or initiating treatment after exploratory surgery. Alternatively, samples of various tissues and/or fluids may be removed for further analysis. For example, if cancer is suspected, biopsies may be obtained so that the tissues can be examined microscopically for evidence of abnormal cells. If no abnormality is found, or if immediate treatment is not needed, the incision may be closed without performing any further surgical procedures.

Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to close the deeper tissue layers, and the outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples that need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Lower G.I. Endorscope

Colonoscopy is a method of non-invasively looking inside the colon by passing a tiny camera on a tube into the inside of the colon. Via colonoscopy we can...

  • visualize and examine the entire colon, including the ascending, transverse and descending colon and rectum,
  • remove foreign or impacted material from the colon,
  • collect biopsies of the inner mucosal surface of the entire colon, and
  • place colonic stents, e.g. for relief of obstructive colonic tumors

Mandibulectomy

Mandibulectomy is a surgical procedure in which a portion of the lower jaw is removed. This can involve both sides of the jaw or just one side. Up to three-quarters of the entire lower jaw can be removed.

Mandibulectomy is most commonly undertaken for the treatment of benign or malignant tumors affecting the lower jaw. Occasionally, mandibulectomy may be selected as the best option for animals with certain types of jaw fracture, jaw bone infection, or fractures that have failed to heal properly. Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to close the deeper tissue layers, and the outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples that need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Nephrectomy

Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of the kidney.  This is a major surgery and hospitalization,  including,  fluid therapy and possible blood transfusions are often required.                                                                                                     

There are several approaches however we will discuss the ventral midline approach.  After induction of anesthesia, your dog will have his abdomen shaved. An incision is made along the midline of the abdomen. The kidney and or the associated tumor are identified and examined. After localizing the problem area, the renal vessels and ureters are ligated, transected and removed. After removal of the, kidney the surgeon will then explore the remainder of the abdominal cavity for further disease or trauma. The abdominal organs in question will be examined for evidence of infection, inflammation, perforation, abnormal growths, or other conditions. Any fluid surrounding the abdominal organs will be inspected; the presence of blood, bile, or other fluids may indicate specific diseases or injuries. In some cases, an abnormal smell encountered upon entering the abdominal cavity may be evidence of infection or a perforated gastrointestinal organ. If an abnormality is found, the surgeon has the option of treating the patient before closing the wound or initiating treatment after exploratory surgery. Alternatively, samples of various tissues and/or fluids may be removed for further analysis. For example, if cancer is suspected, biopsies may be obtained so that the tissues can be examined microscopically for evidence of abnormal cells. If no abnormality is found, or if immediate treatment is not needed, the incision may be closed without performing any further surgical procedures.

Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to close the deeper tissue layers, and the outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples that need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Castration (Neuter) Routine & Laser Canine and Feline

Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on his back. The hair of the scrotum (the skin pouch containing the testicles) and surrounding area is clipped and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. The incision may be made just in front of the scrotum or in the scrotum itself.  The veterinarian uses a scalpel or surgical laser to incise the skin.  A scrotal incision can be made very small and stretched to accommodate the removal of the testicles. The testicles are identified and the major blood vessels and vas deferens are clamped and ligated before removal. Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to tie off the blood vessels and other structures. The incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days. ) or in the case of scrotal incisions a surgical adhesive is used to close the site and no subcutaneous sutures are needed.

Nicititan Flap

The nictitans or third eyelid arises from the inside corner of the eye of most domestic animals.  Humans do not have a "3rd eyelid."  The Nictitans contains a strong cartilage support and a tear gland. It is also designed as an extra protective mechanism for the eye.  In the case of traumatic damage to the cornea it can be pulled across the eye and temporarily anchored in place to provide protection, support and a source of tears for the injured cornea.  It is usually left in place for 7-14 days depending on the injury.

O.F.A. Radiographs

The Orthopedic Foundation of America is an organization that rates radiographs (X-Rays) of hips and elbows in dogs.  These OFA ratings are used by responsible breeders to select superior quality animals for their breeding programs.  Your pet will need to be sedated so that the proper alignment of the area can be achieved.  All animals must be permenently identified with either a tattoo or microchip to have their radiographs evaluated and registered.

Onychetomy (Declaw Routin & Laser 2 Feet & 4 Feet)

There are several methods for performing the procedure, but the goal is the same: complete removal of the third phalanx (last bone in the toe) and the nail that grows from it. Using a laser to perform the declaw is becoming more popular. This may be a less painful option and your cat's toes may have less bleeding afterwards.  The cat is under anesthesia and has a local nerve block administered for this procedure.

Bleeding may occur from the incision after surgery, thus the feet are often bandaged for one to two days following the procedure. Postoperative pain is anticipated and patient is treated with pain killers (analgesics) and/or local anesthetics.

Regrowth of the nail indicates the nail bed was incompletely removed during surgery and your cat will need to have a repeat surgery performed to remove the residual nail bed and claw.

It is recommended that your cat not be allowed outside after this procedure because he will be less able to defend himself from other animals.

Shredded paper is usually used in the litter box for two weeks after surgery to prevent litter from getting into the incisions. Yesterdays News® is a brand of cat litter that can also be used. It is made from recycled newspapers.

Your cat should be monitored for persistence or recurrence of lameness.

Your veterinarian should be notified if any discharge or bleeding begins once your cat returns home.

(Spay) Ovario-Hysterectomy Rt. & Laser Canine and Feline

Surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus. Following anesthesia, the dog is placed on a surgical table, lying on her back. The hair is clipped over the middle of the abdomen and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel or laser is used to incise the skin at the middle of the abdomen, and then the abdominal cavity is opened. The organs of the female reproductive tract are identified and the major blood vessels supplying the ovaries and the uterus are ligated (tied off). This must be done before these organs can be removed. Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to tie off the blood vessels and also to close the uterus above the cervix. Sometime, surgical staples are used in place of sutures. The abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

(Spay) Ovario-Hysterectomy Routine & Laser Rabbit

Surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus. Following anesthesia, the rabbit is placed on a surgical table, lying on her back. The hair is clipped over the middle of the abdomen and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel or surgical laser is used to incise the skin at the middle of the abdomen, and then the abdominal cavity is opened. The organs of the female reproductive tract are identified clamped and the major blood vessels supplying the ovaries and the uterus are ligated (tied off).  The ligated stumps of the ovaries and uterus are incised and the organs removed. Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to tie off the blood vessels and also to close the uterus above the cervix. Sometime, surgical staples are used in place of sutures. The abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Patellar Luxation Repair

The basic principle of the surgery is to stabilize the patella (knee cap) on the tibia. This can be accomplished by placing implants within the knee joint, or around the knee joint, or by altering the dynamics of the joint itself.

When the structures that make up your pet's knees (stifles) are misaligned or misshapen, a problem called "trick knee" or patellar luxation occurs. Your pet’s kneecaps are an important component of its knee joint. These kneecaps (or patella) are meant to ride in a groove on the face of the femur. The patella acts as a pulley, giving leverage to extend the knee as the pet walks and prevents the tendons from getting pinched in the knee.

The kneecap should rides smoothly in a groove (trochlear grove) over the femur, the large bone of the thigh. On the end nearest your dog’s body, a strong ligament attaches the patella to the large thigh muscles. On the other end, a ligament attaches the patella to the pet’s shinbone or tibia. Alignment on the inner (medial patellar ligament) and outer side (lateral patellar ligament) of the knee help keep the patella riding in its track.
When a pet has a luxating patella, this small bone jumps out of its normal grove as the leg is in motion. In over 90% of these cases, the patella jumps out of its tract to the inside of the pet’s knee. Three things can lead to this problem:

The primary problem occurs when the lower attachment of the kneecap ligament is too far to the inner side of the shinbone or tibia. This prevents the normal movement and provides a constant pull on the kneecap.   This is a frequent problem in dogs that are bred to have exceptionally short legs (like dachshunds).  Eventually the constant pull stretches the supporting ligaments permitting the kneecap to luxate.  In order for the patella not to jump out of this tract, the groove must be deep enough to accommodate and cradle the patella as it moves up and down in the groove. Some dogs are born with an abnormally shallow trochlear groove.

Most of these animals have a combination of these issues all contributing to the luxating patellar problem.

In most cases, gentle thumb pressure by your veterinarian on the pet’s kneecap while the knee is extended is sufficient to diagnose the problem. There is a distinctive pop or jerk as the patellar jumps out of its groove to the inner surface of the thigh where it can be readily felt in its abnormal position. Your veterinarian may want to take an x-ray of both knees to determine if arthritic changes are already present. Determining if your pet has a stage 2 or 3 problem is more difficult.

Dogs showing pain, dogs showing the beginning changes of knee arthritis and those that fall in categories 3 and 4  need surgery. Just be sure the lameness they are experiencing is directly attributable to a patellar problem and not to some other concurrent joint abnormality.

There are three surgical procedures that are used to cure patellar luxation. Most cases can be cured with the first. If your veterinarian decides that ligamental reinforcement (lateral imbrication) will not be sufficient, the vet will add the second procedure, deepening of the trochlear groove. If that will not be sufficient, the surgeon may move the point where the patella attaches to the tibia (tibial crest transposition).

Reinforcement of the lateral collateral ligaments (lateral imbrication)
In many mild cases, it is sufficient to simply reinforce the weak lateral ligaments that keep the kneecap in alignment. When the inner or medial ligament has contracted or pulls too hard to the inner side of the knee, that ligament can be stretched at the same time.

Deepening of the trochlear groove (trochlear modification or recession)
Your pet’s patella rides in a channel on the face of the femur. Sometimes, this channel or groove is not deep enough in toy breeds to hold the patella in track. This track is coated with a slippery cartilage that allows for smooth motion. In this surgery, this cartilage (hyaline cartilage) is carefully lifted off to one side while the notch is deepened, or a wedge of bone and cartilage are removed and then replaced in a deepened channel.

Relocation of the tibial attachment (tibial crest transposition)
In some pets, the conformation of the knee structures is so out of line that deepening the trochlear groove will still not allow for smooth action of the knee. In these cases, the kneecap’s attachment to the tibia (shinbone) is too far to the inside of the leg.  This is a congenital problem but usually only exhibits itself as your pet ages. The solution is to remove the point of attachment (tibial tuberosity) along with some underlying bone and reattach it in the front of the tibia to correct the alignment so the patella moves more normally in a straight up-down line. Some pets are born with tibias so distorted that the whole upper section of bone needs to be rotated on its shaft. The earlier in the pet’s life that they are performed, the more positive the outcome tends to be.

Perineal Urethostomy

The amputation of the penis and creating an external urethra to permit urination.  Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, typically lying on his abdomen with the perineum exposed to the surgeon. The hair is clipped around the area selected for the surgery. The surgery is done typically between the scrotum and the rectum. After clipping, the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site, and a scalpel is used to incise the skin. Your veterinarian will have to dissect surrounding tissues until the urethra is exposed, and then will make an incision in the urethra and the penis. The surgeon will suture the edges of the urethra to the edges of the skin incision to create a wide urethral opening. Some surgeons choose to use absorbable sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time. Other surgeons use non-absorbable sutures that need to be removed in about 10 to 12 days. When the procedure is done to intact tomcats, castration is performed as the same time. That procedure is explained elsewhere on this site.

Perineoplasty

Description Coming soon. Camboro offers Perineoplasty.

Porcupine Quill Removal

Surgical removal of porcupine quills, under light sedation the quills are manually removed by hand with hemostats.  These quills are sometimes very difficult to find and will migrate into the deeper tissues.

Prophaylactic Gastropexy

This surgery is to anchor the right side of the stomach to the right side of the body wall to prevent (GDV). Gastric dilation and volvulous (GDV) or bloat is a common life-threatening condition that affects many large breeds of dogs; for information on GDV look at GDV web page. This condition involves distention of the stomach usually with gas and twisting of the stomach. Why wait until the life-threatening condition has occurred? A preventative minimally invasive procedure is now available for your pet. Breeds that are susceptible to GDV and should be considered for the preventative procedure

  • Great Danes
  • Irish Wolf Hounds
  • German Shepherds
  • Standard Poodles
  • Blood Hounds
  • Newfoundlands.
Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on her back. The hair is clipped over the middle of the abdomen and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel or surgical laser is used to incise the skin at the middle of the abdomen, and then the abdominal cavity is opened. The stomach is identified and sutured to the right body wall.  There are different techniques that are used to accomplish this surgery. Sutures (stitches) are used that dissolve over time. The abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

Pyometra Removal

Pyometra literally means "pus in the uterus."  The diseased uterus may contain a sterile fluid produced by the glands that line the uterus or a fluid that is full of infection.   Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on her back. The hair is clipped over the middle of the abdomen and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel or surgical laser is used to incise the skin at the middle of the abdomen, and then the abdominal cavity is opened. The organs of the female reproductive tract are identified and the major blood vessels supplying the ovaries and the uterus are clamped, ligated (tied off) and incised. Extreme care is used when removing the uterus to prevent rupture of the pus filled organ, which would result in contamination of the abdomen. Sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are used to tie off the blood vessels and also to close the uterus above the cervix. The abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 12 days.

Regeneritive Stem Cell Therapy - Adipose Derived

Stem cell regenerative therapy. Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, in a position to for access to collection site. The hair is clipped over the chest, shoulder or inguinal area and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel or surgical laser is used to incise the skin at the middle of the site, and then 5 to 20 grams of adipose tissue (fat) is surgically removed from the of the dog or cat and processed to obtain cells termed stromal vascular fraction (SVF). The incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

So just what is animal Adipose cell regenerative therapy?

Animal adipose regenerative cell therapy uses your pet’s own cells to repair, rebuild and rejuvenate various parts of its body to improve the quality of life. Using its own processes adult dogs, cats and horses suffering from osteoarthritis, hip dysplasia, ligament and cartilage injuries and similar ailments can now live pain free and even return to peak performance.

What is involved in a Adipose Stem Cell Procedure?
 
A small sample of Adipose tissue (fat) is surgically removed from the chest/shoulder or inguinal area of the dog or cat under general anaesthetic and processed to obtain cells termed stromal vascular fraction (SVF). These include many types of tissue stem cells along with many beneficial proteins that encourage bone and cartilage formation, liver cell regeneration, nervous system regeneration, wound healing, vascular rebuilding, skin repair, and actually activate other repair cells that help in the healing process, and permit damaged cells to repair themselves.

So what does that mean for you and your pet?

The new state of the art MediVet “in clinic” stem cell therapy has a number of advantages.    First, the MediVet system allows your pet’s veterinarian here at Camboro Veterinary Hospital to perform the entire stem cell procedure in the clinic and in a same-day hospital visit. Which means that your pet can go home the same day they are admitted for the procedure.    

By eliminating the need to ship the surgically harvested stems cells to an outside laboratory the entire procedure can be completed on the same day thus increasing the number of viable cells available and eliminating the need to bring your pet back for a second visit. We further enhance the viability of the cells by adding “platelet rich plasma” (PRP) to the stem cells and then place the mixture in a patented laser chamber for 10 minutes.     The platelet rich plasma is obtained from the patient’s own blood and contains growth factors which encourage the stem cells to divide and multiply.  Exposure to the photobiomodulation affect of laser stimulates the dormant stem cells using photons to increase cellular energy!

The greater the number of live cells that are available for implanting into the pet, the greater the chance of success. The cells are implanted either intravenously (via the blood stream.) or directly into the pet’s affected joints. Once in the body these repair cells will not only go to the site of damage but will then change into the cell type needed for repair i.e. cartilage cells, tendon cells, or bone cells. Some day soon stem cell therapy may be used to treat internal organ disease as well as musculo-skeletal problems.

Regenerative Cell Therapy literally becomes a life saver. Consider the number of senior dogs and cats with chronic arthritic and related conditions such as hip dysplasia, cruciate ligament tears, non-union fractures, and osteochondritis. They experience constant pain and are often on many medications. Natural Regenerative Cell Therapy can relive their painful problems and decrease or eliminate the medications. Although not recommended by MediVet, veterinarians have used Regenerative Cell Therapy to treat non-orthopedic problems such as degenerative spine and nerve disease, kidney disease, chronic pancreatitis, heart and liver disease. If Regenerative Cell Therapy is performed on any disease other than orthopedic problems the pet’s caregiver must sign a “compassionate use” agreement. The success rate of the therapy when used strictly on orthopedic problems is well over 70%. The reduction of pain and lameness is expected to be seen within 20 and 60 days post op but sometime takes as long as 90 days.

For more information on MediVet Cell Therapy go to the “frequently asked questions” abbreviated  “FAQ”  at  www.MediVetAmerica.com and view the videos that will help you better understand the procedure. Once you have done your on-line research and are interested in pursuing the possibility of Regenerative Cell Therapy for your pet then call our clinic and set up an initial consultation with one of our Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy Certified Veterinarians so that they can evaluate your pet as a possible candidate for the procedure and answer any other questions you might have.

Call Camboro Veterinary Hospital today to set up your pet’s Regenerative Cell Therapy consultation. 814-734-1628
“Regenerative Medicine Cell Consultation Healing the Natural way."

Rhinoscopy

Rhinoscopy is a method of non-invasively looking inside the nose by passing a tiny camera on a rigid or flexible tube into the nose via the nostrils. Or, a tiny endoscope may be passed into the nose via the back of the mouth/retropharynx. With rhinoscopy, we can...

  • visualize and examine the nasal passages, cranial sinuses and retropharyngeal passages,
  • remove nasal foreign material, e.g. impacted feathers, peanuts, toys,
  • remove polyps, e.g. using a snare loop, and
  • collect biopsies and material for cultures from the nasal passages, tumors or polyps.


Splenectomy

A surgery to remove the spleen.  Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, lying on his back. The hair is clipped over the middle of the abdomen and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel or surgical laser is used to incise the skin at the middle of the abdomen, and then the abdominal cavity is opened. The spleen is identified and the vessels supplying the spleen are ligated, or tied off.  Often an automatic surgical staple gun is used to shorten  surgery time. The spleen is then removed. The abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 12 days.

Thoracocentesis

The tapping of the chest to aspirate fluid or air for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In order to perform a thoracocentesis, your veterinarian will likely shave a small area of hair from the chest. The skin is disinfected and a needle or catheter is inserted into the thoracic cavity connected to a 3-way valve to prevent air to leak back into the chest. Fluid is collected with special tubing or syringe. After the fluid is collected, analysis helps determine the potential underlying cause of the fluid accumulation. Analysis of the fluid may be done by your veterinarian or submitted to an outside laboratory. Test results may not be available for up to 3 to 5 days but sometimes, results may be available within a couple of hours. The length of time will depend on which tests are necessary. Collected air is not evaluated but is most often measured to determine the amount of air removed.

Tightrope ACL Repair

See ACL Tightrope for description.

Tumor Removal

Tumor means "lump."  Some of these lumps are benign and some are malignant or cancerous.  Surgical removal of a suspicious tumors followed by histopathologic evaluation by a veterinary pathologist (excisional biopsy) is a common procedure. This may be curative for small, consolidated tumors.  The prognosis for return or spread depends on the type of tumor identified.

Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on a surgical table, The hair is clipped over the area of issue and the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area. A sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. A scalpel or surgical laser is used to incise the skin at the middle of the site. The tumor’s margins are identified and the vessels supplying blood flow are ligated, or tied off. The tumor or mass is then removed.  Often a surgical laser is used to help prevent the spread of tumor cells.  The incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 12 days.

Ulnar Osteotomy

Description coming soon, Camboro does offer ulnar osteotomy services as well as orthopedics.

Umbilical Hernia Repair

All large inguinal hernias should be repaired as close to the time of diagnosis as possible to prevent strangulation of internal organs that may have migrated into the hernia. This repair can be performed at the time of a spay or neuter surgery since the pet will be already anesthetized. The surgery consists of manually reducing the contents of the hernia into the abdomen followed by the surgeon closing the hernial sac and repairing the muscle wall. The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 12 days.

Upper G.I. Endoscope

Endoscopy or scoping the inside of the body is performed under general anesthesia. Once the patient is anesthetized and has an endotracheal (breathing) tube in place, the endoscopy procedure can begin. The tip of the endoscope is lightly lubricated to allow easy passage. The tip of the endoscope in then initially placed in the body orifice (mouth, colon or trachea). The operator then uses the eyepiece to further guide the instrument safely through the esophagus, colon or respiratory tract. Air is often used to inflate part of the gastrointestinal tract to allow viewing. Once the foreign object or abnormal area is located, specific instruments can be passed through the channel within the tube. By using the eyepiece and manipulating the tip of the endoscope, the instrument can be used to grasp an item or take biopsy samples. Once the procedure is complete, excess air is suctioned out of the intestinal tract and the endoscope is removed. Any biopsy samples taken are submitted to an outside laboratory for analysis. Results may take 3 to 5 days. The endoscopy procedure can take 1 to 3 hours.

Zepp

The Zepp or Modified LaCroix Surgical procedure is performed to remove that lateral portion of the ear canal in animals with severe chronic otitis.   After clipping and preparing the site for surgery including flushing and soaking the internal portion of the ear canal the sterile area is draped. The surgical laser is used to remove a full thickness vertical strip of tissue that is essentially the external portion of the canal.   Skin edges of the internal canal are sutured to the skin edges of the skin on the outside. The horizontal canal is now visible for easy access to clean and medicate.  This surgery is very successful if the canal is not too calcified or scarred.  The ear is wrapped to prevent flapping when head is shaken.  The surgical laser makes this surgery must less painful.  Sutures are removed 10-12 days post surgery.

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